Methodology of Liver

Embryology and Gross Morphology
Histology of Liver
Extracellular Matrix of Liver
Methodology of Liver
Application of Liver Histology

Table of Contents

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Liver specimens should be handled as little as possible and with utmost care to avoid squeezing artifacts

Particular attention should be paid to fragmentation (cirrhosis), NO, size, shape and color

Important to process needle biopsy specimens separately from other tissues and a more rapid schedule in the automated tissue processor



Routine Staining

  • H&E
  • Masson’s trichrome or chromotrope-aniline blue

Special Staining

  • Victoria blue or orcein : HBsAG, elastic fiber, lipofuscin, ceroid, copper-binding protein
  • D-PAS : GP including A1AT inclusion, ceroid, BM of bile ducts, CMV inclusion, MAI


Microscopic Exam

Adequate and properly processed specimen without artifact with relevant clinical and LAB data are important

Should conform to a routine and include all tissue fragments and all structures of the liver : architecture, portal triads, limiting plate, hepatocytes, sinusoidal cells and terminal hepatic venules

Usually start with zone 3


Immunohistologic Studies

Development of additional monoclonal antibodies and of highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining are useful eg

  • D-PAS : A1AT deficiency
  • AFT : HCC
  • CEA and Lewis : bile duct carcinoma

AAT Deficiency

HBsAg in Cytoplasm of Ground Glass Hepatocytes

HBcAg in Nuclei and Cytoplasm

Cytokeratin in Normal and Cirrhotic patients


Liver Histology for Pathologists

Summarized By Thirayost Nimmanon

สรุปโดย ธีรยสถ์ นิมมานนท์


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